There are multiple ways to measure kidney size

IMAGING MODALITIES CAN HELP ASSESS KIDNEY SIZE TO IDENTIFY PATIENTS AT RISK OF RAPID PROGRESSION1,2

Order an MRI or CT scan to reliably measure kidney size1,3

  1. Request kidney length, width, and depth measurements
  2. Calculate TKV using the ellipsoid formula formula
  3. Calculate htTKV using the patient’s height and TKV formula
  4. Determine ADPKD Imaging Classification using the Mayo Imaging Classification tool to assess risk of rapid progression

Ultrasound kidney length when MRI/CT-calculated TKV is not available

Based on the CRISP study, ultrasound kidney length >16.5 cm in patients aged <45 years can indicate a risk of rapid progression1,4*

  • In the CRISP study, ADPKD patients <45 years of age with CKD Stage 1 or 2, a kidney length >16.5 cm has been shown to predict future development of CKD Stage 3a within 8 years5

Imaging Order Form

Request kidney imaging for patients with this form

ADPKD Imaging Leave Behind

This material contains information on ADPKD, rapid disease progression, imaging techniques, and how to order/calculate total kidney volume

A CRISP cohort analysis, published in Kidney International, shows that a one‑time measurement of TKV can help predict future kidney function decline6

The Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) is a National Institutes of Health-funded, 14-year observational study (N=241) of adult ADPKD patients. The primary goal was to determine the extent to which TKV forecasts the development of renal insufficiency in ADPKD.6,7

*A direct measurement of TKV would be required if a more accurate assessment is needed.
Average baseline GFR of 98 mL/min/1.73 m2.

ASSESSING PATIENTS AT RISK OF RAPID PROGRESSION

ADPKD imaging classification by htTKV and age predicts the change in eGFR over time2‡

Imaging Classification of ADPKD, Graph
Imaging Classification of ADPKD, Graph

Patient classification

Patient Classification utilizing TKV
Patient Classification utilizing TKV

§Classification applies only to patients with typical morphology of ADPKD as defined by diffuse bilateral cystic involvement of the kidneys.2

~2/3 of the ADPKD patients evaluated in the Mayo Clinic ADPKD imaging classification study were identified to be at risk of rapid progression2||

||357 of the 538 patients in this study were identified as being at risk of rapid progression (1C-1E).

Estimate your patient’s future eGFR decline based on their age and height-adjusted TKV

Estimated eGFR Slope for Men by Subclass, Chart
Estimated eGFR Slope for Men by Subclass, Chart

A kidney length of >16.5 cm bilaterally measured by ultrasound is an indicator of rapidly progressing ADPKD in patients <45 years of age.1,4

ADPKD
=autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
CKD
=chronic kidney disease.
CKD-EPI
=Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration.
CRISP
=Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease.
CT
=computed tomography.
eGFR
=estimated glomerular filtration rate.
GFR
=glomerular filtration rate.
htTKV
=height-adjusted total kidney volume.
MRI
=magnetic resonance imaging.
TKV
=total kidney volume.

  1. Magistroni R, Corsi C, Martí T, Torra R. A review of the imaging techniques for measuring kidney and cyst volume in establishing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression. Am J Nephrol. 2018;48(1):67-78.
  2. Irazabal MV, Rangel LJ, Bergstralh EJ, et al. Imaging classification of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a simple model for selecting patients for clinical trials. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26(1):160-172.
  3. Chapman AB, Bost JE, Torres VE, et al. Kidney volume and functional outcomes in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(3):479-486.
  4. Gansevoort RT, Arici M, Benzing T, et al. Recommendations for the use of tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a position statement on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups on Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016;31(3):337-348.
  5. Bhutani H, Smith V, Rahbari-Oskoui F, et al; for the CRISP Investigators. A comparison of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging shows that kidney length predicts chronic kidney disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2015;88(1):146-151.
  6. Yu ASL, Shen C, Landsittel DP, et al; for the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP). Long-term trajectory of kidney function in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2019;95(5):1253-1261.
  7. Chapman AB, Guay-Woodford LM, Grantham JJ, et al. Renal structure in early autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): The Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) cohort. Kidney Int. 2003;64(3):1035-1045.
     
Rapidly progressing ADPKD, Icon

Learn how to identify adult patients at risk of rapidly progressing ADPKD

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Hear about using
TKV to assess progression

INDICATION and IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

INDICATION:

JYNARQUE is indicated to slow kidney function decline in adults at risk of rapidly progressing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION:

WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS
LIVER INJURY

WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS LIVER INJURY

  • JYNARQUE® (tolvaptan) can cause serious and potentially fatal liver injury. Acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation has been reported
  • Measure transaminases (ALT, AST) and bilirubin before initiating treatment, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after initiation, then monthly for the first 18 months and every 3 months thereafter. Prompt action in response to laboratory abnormalities, signs, or symptoms indicative of hepatic injury can mitigate, but not eliminate, the risk of serious hepatotoxicity
  • Because of the risks of serious liver injury, JYNARQUE is available only through a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy program called the JYNARQUE REMS Program

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

  • History, signs or symptoms of significant liver impairment or injury. This contraindication does not apply to uncomplicated polycystic liver disease
  • Taking strong CYP3A inhibitors
  • With uncorrected abnormal blood sodium concentrations
  • Unable to sense or respond to thirst
  • Hypovolemia
  • Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis, rash) to JYNARQUE or any component of the product
  • Uncorrected urinary outflow obstruction
  • Anuria

Serious Liver Injury: JYNARQUE can cause serious and potentially fatal liver injury. Acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation has been reported in the post-marketing ADPKD experience. Discontinuation in response to laboratory abnormalities or signs or symptoms of liver injury (such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, right upper abdominal discomfort, vomiting, fever, rash, pruritus, icterus, dark urine or jaundice) can reduce the risk of severe hepatotoxicity. To reduce the risk of significant or irreversible liver injury, assess ALT, AST and bilirubin prior to initiating JYNARQUE, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after initiation, then monthly for 18 months and every 3 months thereafter.

Hypernatremia, Dehydration and Hypovolemia: JYNARQUE therapy increases free water clearance which can lead to dehydration, hypovolemia and hypernatremia. Instruct patients to drink water when thirsty, and throughout the day and night if awake. Monitor for weight loss, tachycardia and hypotension because they may signal dehydration. Ensure abnormalities in sodium concentrations are corrected before initiating therapy. If serum sodium increases above normal or the patient becomes hypovolemic or dehydrated and fluid intake cannot be increased, suspend JYNARQUE until serum sodium, hydration status and volume status parameters are within the normal range.

Inhibitors of CYP3A: Concomitant use of JYNARQUE with drugs that are moderate or strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, lopinavir/ritonavir, indinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir, and conivaptan) increases tolvaptan exposure. Use with strong CYP3A inhibitors is contraindicated; dose reduction of JYNARQUE is recommended for patients taking moderate CYP3A inhibitors. Patients should avoid grapefruit juice beverages while taking JYNARQUE.

Adverse Reactions: Most common observed adverse reactions with JYNARQUE (incidence >10% and at least twice that for placebo) were thirst, polyuria, nocturia, pollakiuria and polydipsia.

Other Drug Interactions:

  • Strong CYP3A Inducers: Co-administration with strong CYP3A inducers reduces exposure to JYNARQUE. Avoid concomitant use of JYNARQUE with strong CYP3A inducers
  • V2-Receptor Agonist: Tolvaptan interferes with the V2-agonist activity of desmopressin (dDAVP). Avoid concomitant use of JYNARQUE with a V2-agonist

Pregnancy and Lactation: Based on animal data, JYNARQUE may cause fetal harm. In general, JYNARQUE should be discontinued during pregnancy. Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with JYNARQUE.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-800-438-9927 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 (www.fda.gov/medwatch).

Please see FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION, including BOXED WARNING.

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INDICATION and IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
INDICATION and IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

INDICATION:

JYNARQUE is indicated to slow kidney function decline in adults at risk of rapidly progressing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION:

WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS
LIVER INJURY

WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS LIVER INJURY

  • JYNARQUE® (tolvaptan) can cause serious and potentially fatal liver injury. Acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation has been reported
  • Measure transaminases (ALT, AST) and bilirubin before initiating treatment, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after initiation, then monthly for the first 18 months and every 3 months thereafter. Prompt action in response to laboratory abnormalities, signs, or symptoms indicative of hepatic injury can mitigate, but not eliminate, the risk of serious hepatotoxicity
  • Because of the risks of serious liver injury, JYNARQUE is available only through a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy program called the JYNARQUE REMS Program

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

  • History, signs or symptoms of significant liver impairment or injury. This contraindication does not apply to uncomplicated polycystic liver disease
  • Taking strong CYP3A inhibitors
  • With uncorrected abnormal blood sodium concentrations
  • Unable to sense or respond to thirst
  • Hypovolemia
  • Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis, rash) to JYNARQUE or any component of the product
  • Uncorrected urinary outflow obstruction
  • Anuria

Serious Liver Injury: JYNARQUE can cause serious and potentially fatal liver injury. Acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation has been reported in the post-marketing ADPKD experience. Discontinuation in response to laboratory abnormalities or signs or symptoms of liver injury (such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, right upper abdominal discomfort, vomiting, fever, rash, pruritus, icterus, dark urine or jaundice) can reduce the risk of severe hepatotoxicity. To reduce the risk of significant or irreversible liver injury, assess ALT, AST and bilirubin prior to initiating JYNARQUE, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after initiation, then monthly for 18 months and every 3 months thereafter.

Hypernatremia, Dehydration and Hypovolemia: JYNARQUE therapy increases free water clearance which can lead to dehydration, hypovolemia and hypernatremia. Instruct patients to drink water when thirsty, and throughout the day and night if awake. Monitor for weight loss, tachycardia and hypotension because they may signal dehydration. Ensure abnormalities in sodium concentrations are corrected before initiating therapy. If serum sodium increases above normal or the patient becomes hypovolemic or dehydrated and fluid intake cannot be increased, suspend JYNARQUE until serum sodium, hydration status and volume status parameters are within the normal range.

Inhibitors of CYP3A: Concomitant use of JYNARQUE with drugs that are moderate or strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, lopinavir/ritonavir, indinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir, and conivaptan) increases tolvaptan exposure. Use with strong CYP3A inhibitors is contraindicated; dose reduction of JYNARQUE is recommended for patients taking moderate CYP3A inhibitors. Patients should avoid grapefruit juice beverages while taking JYNARQUE.

Adverse Reactions: Most common observed adverse reactions with JYNARQUE (incidence >10% and at least twice that for placebo) were thirst, polyuria, nocturia, pollakiuria and polydipsia.

Other Drug Interactions:

  • Strong CYP3A Inducers: Co-administration with strong CYP3A inducers reduces exposure to JYNARQUE. Avoid concomitant use of JYNARQUE with strong CYP3A inducers
  • V2-Receptor Agonist: Tolvaptan interferes with the V2-agonist activity of desmopressin (dDAVP). Avoid concomitant use of JYNARQUE with a V2-agonist

Pregnancy and Lactation: Based on animal data, JYNARQUE may cause fetal harm. In general, JYNARQUE should be discontinued during pregnancy. Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with JYNARQUE.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-800-438-9927 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 (www.fda.gov/medwatch).

Please see FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION, including BOXED WARNING.